Application of laser technology in railway passenger car manufacturing

With the rapid development of the world economy, people's daily life is speeding up, and the increasingly fast mode of transportation is becoming more and more urgent. Railway is closely related to people's daily life, is one of the important parts of transportation hub, is an important national infrastructure, directly related to people's vital interests.


In order to effectively improve the operation efficiency of railway, the development of railway is mainly towards high-speed passenger cars, subway passenger cars, light rail vehicles, high-speed heavy haul freight cars and so on. In order to achieve these needs, it is necessary to lighten the train. Now the more common practice is to use aluminum alloy materials in the manufacturing process of passenger cars. Because aluminum alloy materials have the characteristics of light weight, corrosion resistance, smooth appearance, can manufacture complex curved surface, high specific strength, which can effectively reduce the resistance and mass of passenger cars and increase the heavy load. In order to effectively improve the processing efficiency of aluminum alloy materials and ensure the safety of passenger cars, it is necessary to change the traditional processing methods and use laser technology for processing and manufacturing.

The application of laser technology in railway passenger car manufacturing is mainly in the places of plate and profile cutting, key parts welding, automatic production line material transportation and marking transplantation, etc. it has the characteristics of fast processing speed, small deformation of workpiece, high precision, and material saving.

Various laser applications in the manufacture of railway passenger cars

  1. Laser marking technology

Laser marking machine is to mark the surface of various materials with laser beam permanently. The effect of marking is to expose the deep layer material through evaporation of surface material, or "carve" traces through the chemical and physical changes of surface materials caused by light energy, or burn some materials through light energy to show the etched patterns and words. Laser marking machine is to mark the surface of various materials with laser beam permanently. According to the laser, Laser marking machine can be divided into CO2 Laser marking machine, semiconductor Laser marking machine, YAG Laser marking machine and optical fiber Laser marking machine. Laser marking machine shall be used in dust-free and 10 ℃ -35 ℃ environment as far as possible, so as to keep optical devices dry and dust free. Laser marking machine is mainly used in some occasions with more precise and higher precision.

  1. Laser welding technology

Laser welding machine, welding process belongs to heat conduction type, that is, laser radiation heating the surface of workpiece, surface heat is guided by heat transfer to internal diffusion, and the workpiece is melted and formed a specific molten pool by controlling the parameters of laser pulse width, energy, peak power and repetition frequency. Because of its unique advantages, it has been successfully applied in the precision welding of micro and small parts. Laser welding machine is a machine for laser material processing, also known as laser welding machine and laser welding machine. According to its working mode, it can be divided into laser mold welding machine (manual welding machine), automatic laser welding machine, laser spot welding machine and optical fiber transmission laser welding machine. Laser welding is to use high energy laser pulse to heat the material locally in small area, The energy radiated by laser is diffused through the inner of the material through heat transfer, and the material is melted and formed into a specific pool to achieve the purpose of welding.

  1. Laser cutting technology

With the continuous improvement of the quality requirements of rail vehicles, 3D laser cutting technology as an important processing means has been applied in the manufacturing of rail vehicles in recent years. Robot laser cutting technology has the advantages of high precision, strong flexibility and wide processing range, and can be used in cutting and processing of various 3D stamping parts. At present, in the manufacture of rail transit vehicles, although the domestic and foreign rail vehicle manufacturers widely use laser processing and robot technology, the application of robot laser cutting technology is in the beginning stage. It is mainly used for cutting and processing of three-dimensional stamping parts of metal sheet metal such as stainless steel, carbon steel and aluminum alloy, such as three-dimensional cutting head and hole processing of various roof bending beams, side wall columns and other parts. Because of the use of robot laser cutting technology, instead of the original toothless saw cutting, and then manual plasma cutting backward technology, the cutting accuracy and quality of the workpiece are improved, the environmental pollution problems such as grinding wheel dust in the workplace are solved, the labor environment is improved and the progress of cutting technology is promoted, It has a great market application prospect and potential market demand.

The laser technology can not only effectively guarantee the stability of the rail train, but also control the good rate of the processed workpiece by computer. In addition, the surface of the processed workpiece will not be lost during the processing. The appearance is exquisite and the different dimensions can be controlled precisely. For example, laser cutting machine, laser welding machine and Laser marking machine are widely used in railway processing industry. With the continuous change of the demand of railway trains, different types of rail trains with different demands are developing. In order to meet these diversified processing needs, we need to adopt the current high salary processing method for processing and manufacturing, And the application of laser technology is one of them. It is believed that in the near future, rail trains will make people travel more convenient, safe and efficient, and the application of laser technology in the rail train manufacturing industry will be more closely.